A second case of monkeypox detected in Thailand

A second case of monkeypox detected in Thailand

The Ministry of Public Health reported Thailand’s second case of monkeypox in Bangkok on Thursday.

Public Health Minister Anutin Charnvirakul said the infected person is a Thai man who developed high fever, pain and blisters on his body on July 12 and is being treated at Vajira Hospital in Bangkok.

The result of laboratory tests from the Department of Medical Sciences confirmed that he had been infected with monkeypox, the minister said.

The man told health authorities that he had sex with several foreign men, he added.

Opas Karnkawanpong, director general of the Department of Disease Control, said 10 people living in the same house were considered a risk group. They had to undergo laboratory tests and health authorities were awaiting the results.

Officials were trying to find other people who were in close contact with the patient, he said.

Thailand’s first case of monkeypox was a 27-year-old Nigerian man who arrived in Phuket last October. During his stay in Phuket he frequented several nightlife venues and had sexual relations with several women.

Last week, he was confirmed to be infected with the monkeypox virus, but he refused treatment in Phuket and fled to Cambodia via a land border crossing, but was located by Cambodian authorities and hospitalized.

Nineteen people in Phuket were identified as his contacts, but they were found to be free of the virus.

Main facts

  • Monkeypox is caused by the simian orthopoxvirus, which belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus of the Poxviridae family.
  • Monkeypox is a viral zoonosis found mainly in tropical rainforest regions of Central and West Africa. It is sometimes exported to other regions.
  • Clinically, monkeypox is usually manifested by fever, rash and swollen lymph nodes and can lead to a range of medical complications.
  • Monkeypox usually heals on its own and symptoms last 2 to 4 weeks. Some cases can be serious. Recently, the case fatality rate was around 3-6%.
  • The monkeypox virus is transmitted to humans through close contact with an infected person or animal, or with materials contaminated with the virus.
  • Person-to-person transmission of monkeypox virus occurs through close contact with lesions, body fluids, respiratory droplets, and contaminated materials, such as bedding.
  • The clinical picture of monkeypox resembles that of smallpox, a related orthopoxvirus infection declared worldwide eradicated in 1980. Monkeypox is less contagious than smallpox and causes more severe disease. benign.
  • Vaccinia virus vaccines used in the smallpox eradication program also provided protection against monkeypox. Newer vaccines have been developed, one of which has been approved for the prevention of monkeypox.
  • An antiviral agent designed for the treatment of smallpox has also been licensed for the treatment of monkeypox.

Monkey pox according to the WHO

Monkeypox (or simian orthopoxvirus) is a viral zoonosis (virus transmitted to humans by animals) whose symptoms are less severe than those observed in people with smallpox in the past. With the eradication of the latter in 1980 and the subsequent discontinuation of smallpox vaccination, the virus responsible for monkeypox emerged as the most important orthopoxvirus in terms of public health.

Monkeypox occurs primarily in Central and West Africa, often near tropical rainforests, and is increasingly found in urban areas. Animal hosts include various rodents and primates.

Pathogen

Monkeypox virus is an enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus of the Poxviridae family. There are two distinct genetic clades of monkeypox virus: the Central African (Congo Basin) and West African clade. The Congo Basin clade is the one that historically caused the most severe forms of the disease and was thought to be more transmissible. The geographic divide between the two clades has so far been in Cameroon – the only country where both virus clades have been identified.

Natural host of monkeypox virus

Several animal species are known to be susceptible to the monkeypox virus. These include funisciures, squirrels, grasshoppers, dormice, primates and other species. Uncertainties remain as to the natural history of the virus responsible for monkeypox and further studies will be needed to determine precisely the reservoir(s) and the way in which it circulates in nature.

Disease outbreaks

Monkeypox is an important disease for global public health, as it affects not only West and Central African countries, but also the rest of the world. In 2003, the first outbreak of monkeypox outside of Africa occurred in the United States of America. It has been linked to contact with infected domestic prairie dogs. These pets had been housed with grasshoppers and dormice that had been imported into the country from Ghana. This outbreak resulted in more than 70 cases of monkeypox in the United States. The disease has also been reported in travelers from Nigeria to Israel in September 2018, to the United Kingdom in September 2018, December 2019, May 2021 and May 2022, to Singapore in May 2019 and to the United States of America. America in July and November 2021. In May 2022, several cases of monkeypox were identified in non-endemic countries. Studies are underway to better understand the epidemiology, sources of infection and modes of transmission.

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